SELF AND CIVILIZATION-I (THE ABSOLUTE TOTALITY OF ARCHAIC ERA)
Anahtar Kelimeler:Dialectical illusion- petrography- the epic of Gilgamesh- the sacred eye of Horus- Bhagavad-Gītā- Tao- Plato
This paper attempts to re-read the archaic human history from philosophical anthropological point of view by interpreting the most important historical texts in their original language as the expressions of constituting the idea of “self”, between the ideas of “universe” and “God-state”. The idea of “universe” is defined as the external intention of mind (soul) that deals with the problem of truth and science, and “God-state” as the internal one that deals with the problem of freedom and morality. The totality of these aspects of mind historically creates the idea of “self” as an art. This inner-outer movement is a kind of Hegelian dialectics but has been articulated in the role of “Transzendentale Apperzeption” in Kant’s ideas of pure reason: Universe, Soul and God. The ideas are important both in practical life and the theoretical use of reason too, because the ideas are the practical reasons of our all cognitive actions. So, we here too take the position of critical philosophy to create a new historical awareness on the problem of self and unavoidable dialectical illusion.